Gastric Cancer
522
post-template-default,single,single-post,postid-522,single-format-standard,bridge-core-2.6.1,qode-page-transition-enabled,ajax_fade,page_not_loaded,,qode_grid_1300,footer_responsive_adv,qode-theme-ver-24.6,qode-theme-bridge,qode_header_in_grid,wpb-js-composer js-comp-ver-6.5.0,vc_responsive

Gastric Cancer

Gastric Cancer

Dr. Navneet Sharda provides this information as an educational source. It is not intended as a substitute for a consultation with a qualified healthcare provider.

Gastric cancer is also known as stomach cancer. This condition affects men somewhat more often than women. Other names for gastric cancer are cancer of the stomach, gastric carcinoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. “Gastric” means of the stomach. “Carcinoma” means cancer of the cells forming linings within organs, and “adenocarcinoma” means cancer of the glandular cells within organs. In most cases of stomach cancer, the tumors develop in the inner lining (mucosa) of the stomach and spread to the outer layer (serosal) as it grows. Stomach cancer develops slowly and can span over many years before the first symptoms are recognized. Left untreated or diagnosed, stomach cancer grows and spreads to adjacent areas and organs. Once it spreads, the treatment plan becomes complicated and the outcome is not optimistic.

 

Signs and Symptoms

Unfortunately, stomach cancer is asymptomatic during its early stages which can cause an initial diagnosis to be delayed for more than 80 percent of patients. However, some of the initial signs of stomach cancers are:

Indigestion that never goes away and stomach discomfort. Bloated feeling right after eating. Feeling full too easily. Vague discomfort in the abdomen, above the navel. Mild nausea and vomiting sensation. Loss of appetite. Heartburn.

 

Types of Gastric Cancer

There are 5 main types of stomach cancer (gastric cancer) which include:

Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of stomach cancer, 90 to 95 percent of stomach cancer cases, and develops in the glandular tissues.

Lymphoma: This is a rare type of stomach cancer that develops in the immune system tissue of the stomach wall.

Leiomyosarcoma: This is a type of stomach cancer that develops in the stomach muscle layer.

Gastrointestinal Stomal Tumors (GIST): This type of stomach cancer develops in the tissues which support the digestive organs. This type of tumor develops in the stomach wall tissues that contain a specific type of cell called intestinal cells of Cajal.

Carcinoid Tumors: This is another less common form of stomach cancer that develops in the hormone-producing tissues of the stomach. Most of these tumors do not spread to other organs.

 

Diagnosis

One of the first steps in establishing a cancer diagnosis is a detailed and complex medical review of the patient’s past health problems and general health state, followed by a detailed interview focused on displayed symptoms and gastric cancer risk factors.

Physical Examination: The role of a physical examination is to confirm the general health state and to identify possible signs of the cancer. The doctor will also look for any abnormal changes on the abdominal area.

Blood Tests: There are three blood tests used in the diagnoses process of gastric cancer: 1). beta-human chorionic gonadotropin assay, b -hCG , 2). CA-125 assay, and 3). CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) assay. These three substances are produced both by cancerous and normal cells. When the level of these substances is higher then the normal limits, it can be a sign of gastric cancer.

 

Imaging Tests Barium Upper Gastrointestinal Radiography: This test is performed in order to visualize any abnormalities or changes that occurred in the normal outlook of the stomach, esophagus and the first part of the small intestine lining (called Upper GI).

Computed Tomography (CT scan): This image test is similar with an x-ray test and creates a detailed cross-sectional image of the body.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET): This is another image test used successfully in diagnosing stomach cancer. Positron Emission Tomography uses radioactive glucose to locate cancer.

Magnetic Resonance Imagining (MRI): This image test uses radio waves and strong magnets to reveal a complete image of the body targeted area. Endoscopy Procedures

Upper Endoscopy: This type of endoscopy is performed to reveal the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine . Before an endoscopy, the patient is not allowed to eat and drink for several hours. The main side effect of this procedure is a discomfort sensation in the throat.

Endoscopic Ultarsound (EUS): This procedure offers an accurate identification of the cancer stage by combining two classic tests: endoscopy and untrasound. The advantage of this procedure is that the transducer is placed directly near the stomach walls allowing the ultrasound to precisely determine how far the tumor has invaded the stomach walls and how many adjacent lymph nodes are affected. Before this procedure, the patient is asked to not eat and drink for at least four hours.

Laparoscopy: This is a surgical procedure used to check the health state of organs within the abdominal cavity. This procedure uses a thin tube, called a laparoscope, which is inserted through a small incision into the patient’s abdomen.

 

Stages of gastric cancer:

  • Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ): In stage 0, cancer is found only in the inside lining of the mucosal (innermost) layer of the stomach wall.
  • Stage I: Stage I gastric cancer is divided into stage IA and stage IB, depending on where the cancer has spread.
    • Stage IA: Cancer has spread completely through the mucosal (innermost) layer of the stomach wall.
    • Stage IB: Cancer has spread completely through the mucosal (innermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in up to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or to the muscularis (middle) layer of the stomach wall.
  • Stage II: In stage II gastric cancer, cancer has spread completely through the mucosa(innermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 7 to 15 lymph nodes near the tumor; or to the muscularis (middle) layer of the stomach wall and is found in up to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or to the serosal (outermost) layer of the stomach wall but not to lymph nodes or other organs.
  • Stage III: Stage III gastric cancer is divided into stage IIIA and stage IIIB depending on where the cancer has spread.
    • Stage IIIA: Cancer has spread to the muscularis (middle) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 7 to 15 lymph nodes near the tumor; or the serosal (outermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 1 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or organs next to the stomach but not to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
    • Stage IIIB: Cancer has spread to the serosal (outermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 7 to 15 lymph nodes near the tumor.
  • Stage IV: In stage IV, cancer has spread to organs next to the stomach and to at least one lymph node; or more than 15 lymph nodes; or other parts of the body.

 

Treatment Four types of standard treatment are used:

Surgery : Surgery is a common treatment of all stages of gastric cancer. The following types of surgery may be used:

Subtotal gastrectomy: Removal of the part of the stomach that contains cancer, nearby lymph nodes, and parts of other tissues and organs near the tumor.

Total gastrectomy: Removal of the entire stomach, nearby lymph nodes, and parts of the esophagus, small intestine, and other tissues near the tumor. Endoluminal stent placement: A procedure to insert a stent (a thin, expandable tube) in order to keep a passage (such as arteries or the esophagus) open.

Endoscopic laser surgery: A procedure in which an endoscope (a thin, lighted tube) with a laser attached is inserted into the body.

Electrocautery: A procedure that uses an electrical current to create heat. This is sometimes used to remove lesions or control bleeding.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing.

Radiation therapy : Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells.

Chemoradiation : Chemoradiation combines chemotherapy and radiation therapy to increase the effects of both. Chemoradiation treatment given after surgery to increase the chances of a cure is called adjuvant therapy. If it is given before surgery, it is called neoadjuvant therapy.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.